: Differend: Phrases in Dispute (Theory and History of Literature) ( ): Jean-Francois Lyotard: Books. This original study examines Jean-François Lyotard’s philosophical concept of the differend and details its unexplored implications for literature. it provides a. Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box

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If the entire project of science needs a metalegitimation, however and the criteria for scientific knowledge would itself seem to demand that it does then science has no recourse but to narrative knowledge which according to scientific criteria is no knowledge at all.

Discourse contains elements of the figural poetry and illuminated texts are good examplesand visual space can be structured like discourse when it is broken up into ordered elements in order for the world to be recognisable and navigable by the seeing subject. La Partie de peintureCannes: In the early s Lyotard developed a philosophy based around Sigmund Freud’s theory of the libido.

Paganism suggests that there are irreducible differences in the order of things, and that we must take things on their own terms without attempting to reduce them to universals. He contributed to and edited the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal, and wrote pamphlets to distribute to workers at protests and at factory gates.

The Postmodern Condition is a study of the status of knowledge in computerized societies. Kilian, Monika, Modern and Postmodern Strategies: In sum, he looks to any stable formations within society as libidinal fields, whether we are discussing linguistics, economics, or architecture.

Through his theory of the end of metanarratives, Lyotard develops his own version of what tends to be a consensus among theorists of the postmodern lyotarc postmodernity as an age of fragmentation and pluralism. The Davies Group, State University of New York Press, Furthermore, Lyotard’s insistence that the freeing of dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and not actively controlled is motivated by his identification of wilful acts with the organisational subject.

He uses the example of the revisionist historian Faurisson’s demands for proof of the Holocaust to show how the differend operates as a djfferend of double bind or “catch Politics Lyotard’s early political commitments were to revolutionary socialism and a relatively orthodox Marxism see Biography and Ylotard Works b Algeria.

Lyotard’s philosophy frequently calls into question the powers of reason, rejecting many of the claims that have been made about it in the history of philosophy. Rather, all of his works attempt to testify to that which escapes language, though we never stop attempting to articulate this excess. This surmise is differeend longer hyperbolic: The ‘force’ of the phrase is judged by the standard of a genre’s r ules, the same phrase is weak or strong depending upon what is at stake.


On fifferend other hand Lyotard s uggests that it is the philosopher’s job to proliferate idioms thereby affording greater opportunities to express the injustice signified by the differend, and in so doing provide a means by which one can right the wrong that has been done.

Lyotard describes his existence up until the Second World War as a ‘poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living.

Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One | Art History Unstuffed

diffrrend Shortly after completing Libidinal EconomyLyotard began nine years of efforts crafting his masterwork, The Differend Art and PoliticsLondon: Despite this linguistic model, phrases may be extralinguistic, including the very gestures, shadings, and libidinal energetics he had discussed in his earlier writings. However, the lack of a grand narrative, or recognized hegemonic discour se ultimately creates myriad problems for communication.

Expression When one is placed within a language community one must communicate. Furthermore, he does not see the subject as a transcendent and immutable entity, but as produced by wider social and political forces. Readings, Bill, Introducing Lyotard: Who is being addressed and why? sifferend

In particular, he is interested in the bearing this problem has on the question of whether phenomenology can think history politically, thus potentially contributing to Marxism. Here is how Lyotard famously defines the postmodern more positively than being merely a disbelief in metanarratives:.

Lyotard sees a danger in this dominance, since it follows from his view that reality cannot be captured within one genre of discourse or representation of events that science will miss aspects of events which narrative knowledge will capture. Politics, she believed, became ideological at best and totalitarian at worst if wedded to notions of truth, such as involved in the metanarratives of Marxist economic theory and lyptard inexorable laws of history, or the racist theories of Nazism.

One lyohard claim, “Here is a wrong I just cannot express it. In the differeend on Algeria, Lyotard applies this project to the French occupation, trying to determine the potential for socialist revolution arising from this situation. The postmodern, then, bears witness not to the fact that there are no facts, but rather that those claiming a passkey to reality differwnd want to make a claim for the hegemony of one phrase regimen e.

Lyotard, Jean-François | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This also means that there is no “correct” way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to be employed in following one phrase with another. Just as pagan religions believe in a number of different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard’s pagan philosophy represents a concern for pluralism and multiplicity terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality.


In modernity the narrative of science was legitimated by one of a number of metanarratives, the two principal ones being respectively Hegelian and Marxist in nature. The master narratives of the Enlightenment do not seem particularly repressive here, and the concept of truth is not fluid or unstable-on the contrary!

Differend: Phrases in Dispute

Though this led Dummett to an anti-realist position on time, following J. Part of his work in The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the increasing dominance of scientific knowledge. Justice demands a witnessing and a remembering of the fact that there is a differend.

But this leaves, then, open a question that haunts other similar projects of the time: The task, for Lyotard, is to see that questions of justice and prescriptive language games are not simply about obeying laws. Lyotard writes that the developments in postmodernity he is dealing with have been largely concerned with language: Columbia University Press, The very nature of discourse puts the burden of proof on th e plaintiff and determines the legitimacy of claims.

He sees the performativity criterion as applying not just to science, technology, and capital, but to the State as well. Therefore, when Lyotard suggests that the only method by which the differend can be addressed is kyotard bea ring witness this is disappointing.

The later is the wronged party in a litigation; the former, the wronged party in a differend. It may be the case that the only evidence for the claim to land rights that the Aborigines have will not be admissible as evidence in the court of government law though it is perfectly acceptable in tribal law.

According to Lyotard, representational theory follows this model by placing the reality that representation refers to in a transcendent realm. The end result of Lyotard’s work on Algeria and the disappointment at the failure of socialist revolution to take place led him to an abandonment of revolutionary socialism and traditional Marxism on the grounds that social reality is too complex to describe accurately with any master-discourse.

As the s progressed, Lyotard moved towards considerations of justice that could discern among different regimes of intensities, but only once we acknowledge the changes in the era in which we live. The method Lyotard chooses to use in his investigations is that of language games. To elaborate on what was said above; genres of discourse themselves are inc ommensurable.