IONTOPHORESIS SEMINAR REPORT PDF
Free download complete engineering seminar Iontophoresis Seminar Report pdf. Here we are giving you Iontophoresis Seminar and PPT with PDF report. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it. Seminar on Iontophoresis Drug Delivery System .. Reports have appeared in literature showing appreciable levels of certain drugs in underlying deeper.
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In addition, patients on dialysis could have side effects directly from the dialysis treatments, may need an altered diet, and may need to find a new job or career if their previous job required heavy lifting? The vast majority of those diagnosed with ESRD were treated with dialysis, the most common method being hemodialysis.? Non-ionised compounds are generally better absorbed through the skin than ionised substances.
Iontophoresis Published on Jan 16, Sfminar a negatively charged drug is to be delivered across an epithelial barrier which is placed under the negatively charged delivery electrode reportt from which it is repelled, to be attracted to the positive electrode placed elsewhere on the body.
A final issue with the current method of kidney dialysis is the life expectancy. Other barriers for the use of reverse iontophoresis as an alternative to kidney dialysis include the properties of the skin and safety issues regarding the application of an ionto;horesis current to the skin. So, enlarging the negative electrode size lowers the current density on the negative pad, leading to reduction of irritation. The method has also been reported useful for topical anesthesia to the skin prior to cut-down for artificial kidney dialysis, insertion of tracheotomy tubes and infiltration of lidocaine into the skin prior to venipuncture.
This practice is as old as medicine itself. As a result, the time needed for an effect is relatively short seccompared to when iontophoresis is used for therapeutic purposes min. An external energy source can be iontoporesis to increase the rate of penetration of drugs through the membrane.
Iontophoresis ionophoresis based on the general principle that like charges repel each other and unlike charges iontophresis each other.
Many drug candidates for local applications only exist in an ionised form, which makes effective membrane impossible. One such method, reverse iontophoresis, is a non-invasive and convenient technique to draw certain substances in bodily fluids out through the skin.? The delivered dose lontophoresis on the current flowing and its duration. When using iontophoresis as a diagnostic instrument, the following factors have to be considered.
Treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders with anti-inflammatory agents has been reported in the literature. This results in a reduction of the number of drug ions to be delivered through the tissue barrier by the applied current. While dialysis has been an effective solution to renal failure, other methods should be encouraged as a better alternative to the present system.? Currently the use of reverse iontophoresis has been predominantly relegated to matters involving glucose levels in the body.
Current methods of kidney dialysis are invasive and very time intensive for the patient. This polarisation can be overcome by using pulsed DC, a direct current that is delivered periodically. Currently, reverse iontophoresis is successfully utilized in a glucose monitoring device called the GlucoWatch4 Figure 5. As the determination of the ECE for many complex substances is very difficult, fewer milligrams of these complex substances will penetrate the skin. The latter ion is of opposite charge is referred to as a counter-ion.
Iontophoresis has mainly been used for therapeutic purposes, but in combination with the laser Doppler technique, it is possible to study the influence of the drugs used on vascular bed. We think you have liked this presentation. The treatment is not the current itself, but rather the ions introduced through that current.
Potassium is a positively charged molecule and moves towards the cathode via electro-migration.? The quantity of direct or pulsed current to be used is determined by multiplying the surface area by the time of exposure. When using iontophoresis, it is important to know that adding buffering agents performs pH adjustment. Until now, the combination LDPM laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and iontophoresis has been used mostly as a diagnostic tool for diseases affecting macro- and microcirculation and the controlling regulatory nerves.
Section 1 Electric charge and static electricity. Tests have shown that the GlucoWatch is safe for children older than seven and that the GlucoWatch is just as accurate as traditional methods9.? Treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders with anti-inflammatory agents has been reported in the literature.
Galvani and Volta, two well-known scientists working in the 18th century, combined the knowledge that electricity can move different metal ions, and that movements of ions produce electricity.
So, the negative electrode should be made larger than the positive electrode usually twiceeven if the negative electrode is the active one. According to the laws of physics, electrons flow from negative to positive, regardless of electrode size.
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Ideally, the use of a buffer system should be avoided in iontophoresis, but if this is not possible, alternative buffers consisting of ions with low mobility or conductivity are preferred. Most of the drug ions used for diagnostic purposes in combination with iontophoresis and LDPM are small in size. The penetration across the skin or other epithelial surfaces is usually slow due to their excellent barrier properties. The company NxStage Medical has designed a portable dialysis unit that looks almost like a briefcase?
The choice of drug is of importance depending on whether the compound is unionised or ionised. Clearly, there is a need for a quicker, more effective and cost efficient method of removing wastes from the body when the kidneys cannot.? The absorption rate of the drug is increased, however, once the drug passes through the skin barrier natural diffusion and circulation are required to shuttle the drug to its proper location. However, since small amounts of molecules are already removed in order to monitor the concentration of molecules in the blood, it is logical to extrapolate that reverse iontophoresis could be used to perform the same function as a dialysis machine.?
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Application of a positive current from an electrode to a solution applied to a skin surface will drive the positively charged drug ions away from the electrode and into the skin.
As mentioned previously, a current in the range of 17 to 99 mA can kill a human being so the reverse iontophoresis device must operate under this range?
With hemodialysis, an artificial kidney called a hemodialyzer is inserted into the body and connected to blood vessels with either a catheter or fistula Figure 2. The cathodal hyperemia is generally more pronounced and takes more time to disappear than that of the anode. Are you interested in this topic.
This slightly breaks up the skin barrier and allows small of amounts of body fluid to escape.? The method has also been reported useful for topical anesthesia to the skin prior to cut-down for artificial kidney dialysis, insertion of tracheotomy tubes seimnar infiltration of lidocaine into seminad skin prior to venipuncture.
These include the physiochemical properties of the compound molecular size, charge, concentrationdrug formulation, type of vehicle, buffer, pH, viscosity, pressure of other ionsequipment used available current range, constant versus seminag current, type of electrodebiological variations skin site, regional blood flow, age, sexskin temperature and duration of iontophoresis.