Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). We investigated whether intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels would reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes who. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study.

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The results of metformin treatment are the most controversial [ 14 ]. Questionnaires were given to people in the study to assess their quality of life with questions assessing mood, work satisfaction, symptoms and everyday mistakes.

That the reduced occurrence of myocardial infarction was not significant may be due to type 2 statistical error. Their use also rstudio the number of treatment comparisons, thus minimizing the chances of false-positive results, but had the disadvantage of concealing the magnitude of effects on individual end points.

One-third of patients allocated to tight control required three more drugs in the attempt to achieve the target blood pressure. These showed that intensive management was neutral in its effect, with neither an adverse or beneficial effect.

Others uklds allocated to an intensive policy group aiming for near-normal glucose control, with two different sulphonylureas setudio or to insulin. There is no doubt that aggressive management of blood pressure is important, particularly in reducing macrovascular disease, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients.

Over subjects at 23 centres across the UK were considered for inclusion; took part.

In addition, no larger scale studies had been done to show whether improved blood pressure control was effective. Twenty-one single end points were also defined. One of the first clinical descriptions was by Estuudio, who practised in Cappadocia around AD. There was no difference in HbA1c among agents in the intensive group.


This must be remembered when applying the results of the study to clinical practice.

Intensive treatment often results in hyperinsulinaemia, with weight gain and an increase in hypoglycaemia [ 9 ], both of which have theoretical adverse effects on macrovascular disease, the major life threatening complication of type 2 diabetes. Intensive glucose control significantly reduced any diabetes-related end point, but had no effect on mortality. The Study has shown that insulin is an acceptable treatment when given at an earlier stage of Type 2 diabetes than currently is the practice.

Diabetes was first recognized years ago by the Ancient Egyptians. Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

The patients were randomly allocated to different therapies, diet, sulphonylurea tablets, metformin tablets or to insulin. The findings could also be interpreted as indicating that insulin and sulphonylureas are equally harmful in the obese, possibly as a consequence of hyperinsulinaemia. Both are important, however, obtaining near-normal blood pressure is, in many patients, easier than maintaining near-normal blood glucose levels because more different types of therapies are available.

This would allow early therapy to be given before the processes which lead to complications can operate. Thus, unlike blood pressure control, intensive glycaemic control is not suitable for all patients, particularly the elderly, or those with existing severe complications.

In the world wide prevalence of type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetes was 99 million 1.

UK Prospective Diabetes Study : Protocol

In addition, some studies have suggested that hyperinsulinaemic states are atherogenic [ 17 ], and the increased incidence of hypoglycaemia with intensive control with insulin could theoretically precipitate a cerebrovascular or cardiovascular event.

University Group Diabetes Programme. As in the glucose control study, no threshold for risk was seen in the hypertension study. The fact that benefits are achieved within 2 or 3 years means that all patients should be treated irrespective of age. Received Mar 15; Accepted Aug Sixteen year follow-up study. In a large American study DCCT was published which showed a close relationship between control of Type 1 diabetes and the risk of complications from small vessel disease.


UK Prospective Diabetes Study

There was also a trend, just short of statistical significance, towards a reduction in macrovascular disease. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

On the other hand, the questionnaire showed that when people had diabetic complications, ewtudio adversely affected quality of life. The results of UKPDS suggest that a formal screening programme should be set up to identify diabetes before symptoms occur.

Therefore inan additional study ukpda set up in over people with diabetes and a high blood pressure. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: Any patients unable to attend clinics were sent EQ-5D and health resource questionnaires, with additional questionnaires to their general practitioners to captured possible endpoints.

These same questionnaires were used to follow all patients remotely from toas financial constraints meant UKPDS clinics could no longer be supported. Type 1, which usually starts in young people and always needs to be treated with insulin.

UKPDS was a unique, long-term study. One thousand one hundred and forty-eight patients took part. Nevertheless, in comparison with other preventative strategies, the intensive management could be regarded as being cost-effective.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. We compared the effects of intensive blood-glucose control with either sulphonylurea or insulin and conventional treatment on the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in a randomised controlled trial.