reactivation. immunoassay system), strips are impregnated with the dry conjugate , antibody, apo-enzyme, glucose and reagents for detecting hydrogen peroxide. The use of antiserum to glucose oxidase in the apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay system (ARIS) is described. Formation of an immune complex between. Apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay; Cofaetor-labeled; Inhibitor-labeled. Introduction. Homo~’:icous immunoassay is defined as an immunoassay system in.

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Here the enzyme may be imbedded in a conducting polymer matrix, such as ferrocene-containing pyrrole derivatives, immunooassay epoxy cements derivitized to contain electrically conducting pyridinium-N-ethylamine polycationic domains, copolymers of allylamine and ferrocene-functionalized acrylic acid, silicon alkoxide sol-gel matrices doped with electron-transfer mediators, and the like.

Examples of use in the English literature, quotes and news about apoenzyme. The net result is to create a sandwich structure of the type: The test will also contain excess amplification substrate 40 for the electrochemically active enzyme, as well as other chemicals and cofactors needed to stimulate the desired coagulation protease reaction such as thromboplastin and calcium for a prothrombin time test, etc. The immunochemical detector device of claim 12in which the test antigen is selected from the group consisting of markers for sepsis, angiogenesis, pregnancy, ovulation, cardiovascular status, infectious disease, drugs of abuse, therapeutic drugs, kidney disease, ischemia, coagulation and cancer diagnostics.

For example, the intrinsic coagulation pathway can be activated using the appropriate initiator, and an Activated Clotting Time ACT test for intrinsic coagulation pathway inhibitors, such as heparin, can also be created. In addition to the enzyme activation factor cofactorthe test analyte detection moiety has two other parts; an analyte detector part region and a blocker part or region.

This combination creates a novel combination test technology capable of detecting a wide range of different analytes, and operating in a wide variety of wet or dry, in vivo or in vitro environments.

The general form for a hydrolase enzyme reaction is: For a coagulation test, the positive high control can be obtained by using a control electrode with an alternate peptide substrate that is not sensitive to the particular protease used in the reaction.

The amplification substrate, in conjunction with the reactivated apoenzyme, acts to amplify the signal generated by the cleavage of the test substrate, and changes this signal into an electrochemical signal.

These particles are held in a polymeric binder support. Blood testing apparatus having a rotatable cartridge with multiple lancing elements and testing means.

In the presence of test analytes, however, the test ligands compete for binding to the reagent antibodies, and displace the hybrid molecules away from the reagent antibodies. Method and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release. To a;oenzyme if a proper amount of anticoagulant has been administered, the functional capability of the extrinsic coagulation pathway is tested.


As shown in the lower half of FIG.

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This thromboplastin solution is allowed to dry, creating a plastic cover with a dried thromboplastin-calcium pellet attached. Thus this device may be reused multiple times. The net effect of this test analyte induced enzyme reactivation is shown in the lower half of FIG.

Then apoglucose oxidaseis added to combine with the free fraction and generate glucose oxidase activity, which is measured colorimetrically. Apoenzyme 1 additionally contains a substrate-binding site 3 for amplification enzyme substrate 4. It can simply be a larger soluble and relatively inert protein, such as an antibody or albumin protein, chosen solely on its ability to serve as a steric blocking group, and not otherwise interfere with the assay.

Synonyms and antonyms of apoenzyme in the English dictionary of synonyms. The eluate from this column should then be immediately coupled to 1. Note that although use of genetic antibody-enzyme hybrids has certain advantages, the above techniques may also be used with conventional antibody based immunochemical diagnostic devices, such as those discussed in FIGS. The binding of the prosthetic group to the antibody by way of reagent antigen 8 makes it sterically infeasible for prosthetic group 6 to bind to the electrochemical apoenzyme prosthetic group binding site 2.

This material is a loose meshwork of connected electrically conducting carbon fibers, and has a structure similar to loose weave filter paper, with large approximately 50 micron holes and voids in-between the various thin and interconnected carbon filaments.

If an implantable chip configuration is desired, the chip may be designed with supplemental onboard electronics to transduce the electrochemical signal into an analog or digital signal suitable for transmission outside the body. In particular, the specific teaching of FIGS.

There are only a small number of enzymes most such as aminoacylase, being medically non-relevantwhich act to create prosthetic groups e. Flavin adenine dinucleotide as a label in homogeneous colorimetric immunoassays.

Homogeneous apoenzyme reactivation immunoassay for thyroxin-binding globulin in serum.

By contrast there are a very large number of medically important enzymes that act to cleave larger polymeric substrates into smaller subunits. Typically porous electrode 1 will be mounted on a carrier 4 that lends mechanical support and protection to the electrode. Alternatively the hybrid antibodies discussed in FIGS. Note that in contrast to the methods of Turner who uses the reagent enzyme aminoacylase to generate prosthetic groups during the course of the assayin the present art, prosthetic group 16 is present before the assay begins, and particularly before test or analyte enzyme 19 is introduced to the system.

The porous electrode 1 will typically also contain other reaction chemicals, such as the amplification substrate 31 for the electrochemically active enzyme, electron transport mediator 32apoenzyme stabilizing agents such as trehalosepolymers used to modulate the movement of microbeads within the porous electrode, as well as to modulate the flow of test fluids applied to the porous electrode surfacebuffers, surfactants used to encourage test fluid flow into multiple voids 3 and appropriate protease initiators or coagulation pathway initiators, such as thromboplastin and calcium for a prothrombin time assay not shown.


Note that in this configuration, enzyme 45 remains attached to former apoenzyme microbead 20now renamed enzyme microbead In a third configuration, unconjugated spacer microspheres may be used. A number of possible transducer enzymes exist, including HRP previously mentionedcytochrome c, and others. A novel chemiluminescence paper microfluidic biosensor based on enzymatic reaction for uric acid determination.

The aminoacylase enzyme is simply used as an antigen specific binding detection tool. Daniel Chapin Pease, Liu and Wang ” Improved design for the glucose biosensor “, Food technol. This porous electrode 1 contains regions of electron transporting material 2such as carbon or metal fibers, arranged in an open but connected three dimensional meshwork configuration that allows electrical transport over the length or width of the electrode, as well as multiple voids 3 of various sizes, at least some of which are in fluid communication with the outside surface of the electrode.

Sepsis markers include calcitonin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, endogenous activated protein C, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6 and 10, endotoxin, lipopolysacharide binding protein, and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide. At present, all coagulation tests are significantly more expensive than electrochemical blood glucose tests, and all require more complex and sophisticated metering systems.

Vielstich edMathias et. Tricyclic antidepressant drug immunogens, antibodies, labeled conjugates, and related derivatives. Drugs of abuse include amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methamphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, THC, and trycyclic antidepressants.

Meaning of “apoenzyme” in the English dictionary

The blocker part of the analyte detection moiety is an entity that, in the absence of interactions between the moiety’s detector region and the test ligand, acts to prevent the enzyme activation factor from binding to the inactivated enzyme apoenzyme on the sensing electrode.

These include general-purpose detection methodologies, such as chromatography and mass spectrometry, and more specialized detection methodologies, such as the various diagnostic chemical methodologies that employ test reagents designed to produce detectable signals upon chemical reaction with the test analyte.

The present application is focused on this latter type of rapid chemical test methods. This sandwich immunoassay generally works according to the scheme previously described in FIG.

The prosthetic group 21 reactivates the apoenzyme This in turn is bound to a distant surface 8such as a microbead or different location on the enzyme electrode.